Newton N. Minow
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from the Museum of Broadcast Communications Encyclopedia of Television
Newton Minow was one of the most controversial figures ever to chair the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Appointed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy, Minow served only two years, but during that time he stimulated more public debate over television programming than any other chair in the history of the commission.
Trained at Northwestern Law School, Minow's public career began with his involvement in the administration of Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson during the 1950s. At a very young age Minow became a leading figure both on the governor's staff and in his presidential campaigns of 1952 and 1956. During the latter, Minow became acquainted with members of the Kennedy circle and in 1960 worked for the Kennedy presidential bid, becoming close friends with the President's brother, Robert. Reportedly, the two men frequently talked at length about the increasing importance of television in the lives of their children. It therefore came as little surprise that after the election Minow eagerly pursued the position of FCC Chair. Some observers nevertheless considered it unusual given his lack of experience with the media industry and with communication law.
Appointed chair at the age of 34, Minow lost little time mapping out his agenda for television reform. In his first public speech at the national convention of broadcasting executives, Minow challenged industry leaders to "sit down in front of your television set when your station goes on the air and stay there without a book, magazine, newspaper, profit-and-loss sheet or rating book to distract you--and keep your eyes glued to that set until the station signs off. I can assure you that you will observe a vast wasteland." Sharply critical of excessive violence, frivolity, and commercialism, Minow's remarks sparked a national debate over the future of television. Although similar criticisms about television and popular culture had circulated widely during the late 1950s, Minow became the first chair of the FCC to specifically challenge the content of television programming and to urge significant reform. His characterization of the medium as a "vast wasteland" quickly became ubiquitous, especially in newsprint headlines and cartoons. During his two years in office, it was estimated that, other than the president, Minow generated more column-inches of news coverage than any other federal official.
In part, Minow's criticisms of television were linked to broader anxieties about consumerism, child-rearing, and suburban living. Many social critics during this period worried that middle-class Americans had "gone soft" and lost their connection to public life. In an inaugural address that focused exclusively on foreign policy, President Kennedy implored Americans to revive their commitment to the urgent struggle for freedom around the globe. Shortly thereafter, Newton Minow framed his critique of television along similar lines, arguing that the medium had become a form of escapism that threatened the nation's ability to meet the challenge of global Communism. Moreover, he worried about the increasing export of Hollywood programming overseas and the impact it would have on perceptions of the United States among citizens in other countries. In the months following the speech, Minow advocated the diversification of programming with particular emphasis on educational and informational fare. Confronted by powerful opposition among industry executives, he nevertheless continued to chide network programmers in speeches, interviews, and public appearances.
Although the Minow FCC never drafted specific programming guidelines, some argued that Minow employed a form of "regulation by raised eyebrow," which helped to stimulate the production of programs favored by the FCC. Indeed, during the early 1960s, network news grew from adolescence to maturity and many credit Minow for helping to foster its growth. He especially was seen as a champion network documentary, a genre of programming that placed particular emphasis on educating the public about Cold War issues. Many critics nevertheless contend that beyond news, little changed in primetime television during the Minow years and some suggested that, overall, the Minow FCC enjoyed few tangible policy accomplishments.
While that may have been true in the short run, the FCC chair played a leading role in the passage of two pieces of legislation that would have important long-term effects. The first was the All Channel Receiver Act of the 1962, which required that all television sets sold in the U.S. be capable of picking up UHF stations in addition to the VHF stations that then dominated the medium. By the end of the 1960s, this law significantly increased the number of television stations, and allowed the ABC network to achieve national coverage, making it truly competitive with NBC and CBS.
Secondly, Minow crafted the passage of legislation that ushered in the era of satellite communications. Under his leadership, various factions within the electronics and communications industries agreed to a pie-sharing arrangement that resulted in the organization of the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat) and ultimately the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT). Created with an eye toward attaining a strategic advantage over the Soviet Union, these U.S.-controlled organizations dominated the arena of satellite communications throughout the 1960s and much of the 1970s.
Shortly after the passage of these key pieces of legislation, Minow resigned from the FCC and returned to a lucrative private practice, later becoming a partner in one of the most powerful communications law firms in the United States: Sidley and Austin. Through the late 1990s, he remains an influential figure both in the media industry and in policy circles.
Baughman, James. Television's Guardians: The FCC and the Politics of Programming, 1958-1967. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.
Curtin, Michael. Redeeming the Wasteland. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1995.
_______________. "Beyond the Vast Wasteland." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1993.
Watson, Mary Ann. The Expanding Vista: American Television in the Kennedy Years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
NEWTON (NORMAN) MINOW. Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A., 17 January 1926. Northwestern University, B.S. 1949; J.D. 1950. Married: Josephine Baskin, 1949; children: Nell, Martha and Mary. Served in U.S. Army, 1944-46. Admitted to Wisconsin Bar, 1950; Illinois Bar, 1950; with firm of Mayer, Brown & Platt, Chicago, 1950-51 and 1953-55; law clerk to chief justice Fred M. Vinson, 1951-52; administrative assistant to Illinois governor Stevenson, 1952-53; special assistant to Adlai Stevenson in U.S. presidential campaigns, 1952, 1956; partner in firm of Stevenson, Rifkind & Wirtz, Chicago, New York City and Washington, D.C., 1955-61; chair, the Federal Communication Commission, 1961-63; executive vice president, general counsel and director, Encyclopedia Britannica, Chicago, 1963-65; partner, Sidley and Austin, Chicago, 1965-91; of counsel from 1991; board of governors, Public Broadcasting Service, 1973-80; chairman of the board, 1978-80; past chair, Chicago Educational TV, currently honorary chairman; chair, publications review board, Arthur Andersen & Co., 1974-83; chair of the board of overseers, Jewish Theological Seminary, 1974-77; co-chair, presidential debates League of Women Voters, 1976, 1980; professor of communications policy and law, Annenberg Program, Northwestern University, from 1987. Board of directors, Foote, Cone & Belding Communications Inc.; Tribune Co.; Sara Lee Corp.; AON Corp.; Manpower, Inc. Trustee, Notre Dame University, 1964-77, from 1983; Mayo Foundation, 1973-81; trustee, past chair of board, Rand Corporation; Chicago Orchestral Association, 1975-87, life trustee from 1987; trustee, Northwestern University, 1975-87, life trustee, from 1987. Honorary degrees: LL.D., University of Wisconsin, and Brandeis University, 1963; Honorary LL.D., Northwestern University, 1965; Honorary LL.D., Columbia College, 1972; Northwestern University Alumni Association Medal, 1978; Ralph Lowell Award, 1982; Honorary LL.D., Governors State University, 1984; Honorary LL.D., DePaul University, 1989; Honorary LL.D., RAND Graduate School. Member: Fellow, American Bar Foundation; American Academy of Arts and Sciences; American Bar Association; Illinois Bar Association; Chicago Bar Association. Recipient: Peabody Broadcasting Award, 1961; Nortwestern Udniversity Alumni Association Medal, 1978; Ralph Lowell Award, 1982. Address: Sidley & Austin, 1 First National Plaza, Chicago, IL 60603.
Equal Time: The Private Broadcasters and the Public Interest. New York: Atheneum, 1964.
Presidential Television, with John Bartlow Martin and Lee M. Mitchell. New York: Basic Books, 1973
For Great Debates. New York: Priority Press, 1987.
How Vast the Wasteland Now. New York: Gannett Foundation Media Center, 1991.
Abandoned in the Wasteland: Children, Television, and the First Amendment, with Craig L. LaMay. New York: Hill and Want, 1995.
- Former FCC Chairman Newton Minow on what he was trying to convey in his 1961 "Vast Wasteland" speech
Clip begins at: 20:57, Duration: 02m 21s
- Newton Minow on his opinion of the television industry and its failure to remain in the public interest
Clip begins at: 13:59, Duration: 02m 49s
- Newton Minow on his role as FCC chair, his views on American programming and the FCC's television policies; on his work with children's television and news; on working with the networks; on the legislation he worked to enact: the All Channel Act requiring a UHF tuner as well as a VHF tuner on all television set, the Aid To Educational Television. and the Communications Satellite Act; on his contributions to public television
Clip begins at: 02:27
- Newton Minow on whether he still sees television as a "vast wasteland" in 1999
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- Part 1
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- On his early years and education; on his World War II military service; on pursuing a law degree at Northwestern University; on working as a Supreme Court law clerk for Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson; on working on Adlai Stevenson's 1952 presidential campaign; on becoming acquainted with the Kennedy family
Clip begins at: 00:43
- Part 2
- On returning to private law practice in 1953
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- On working on John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign; on being appointed Chairman of the FCC in 1961; on Kennedy's vision for telecommunications; on leaving the FCC prematurely
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- On the history of the FCC; on the state of the FCC upon his arrival
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- Part 3
- On the makeup of the FCC at the time of his chairmanship; on moving to Washington, D.C.
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- On President John F. Kennedy's 1961 speech to the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), where he focused on the openness of the United States' space program to the media; on his own May 9, 1961 speech to NAB which became known as the "Vast Wasteland" speech; on the reactions to the speech
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- On the Cold War; on arranging for Voice of America broadcasts on commercial stations during the Cuban Missile Crisis
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- Part 4
- On working with commercial stations during the Cuban Missile Crisis (continued); on American programming and the FCC's television policies; on his work with children's television and news; on working with the networks; on the legislation he worked to enact: the All Channel Act requiring a UHF tuner as well as a VHF tuner on all television set, the Aid To Educational Television. and the Communications Satellite Act
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- On his and the FCC's role in public television; on leaving his position as FCC chairman; on his work on the board of Chicago's Channel 11 public television station
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- Part 5
- On his role in the administration of PBS (after he left the FCC); on the importance of Presidential debates
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- On joining the board of CBS; on William S. Paley and Frank Stanton
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- On his work in education; on his thoughts on the future of the television industry; on his opinion of the responsibilities of broadcasters; on television audiences; on some of the people he worked with in his career
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- Part 6
- On some individuals he's known including Adlai Stevenson, Studs Terkel, his law partner Howard Trienens; on an incident at WTTW regarding producing Birds of the Iron Feather; Walter Cronkite, Walter Annenberg; on his publications; on his wife
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